Venice at war in Europe
The territorial expansion of the Serenissima opposed the expansionist intentions of Pope Julius II, Louis XII , Maximilian of Austria and the new Pope Julius II (Giuliano della Rovere). These gentlemen came together on 22 September 1504, linked by the Treaty of Blois that against the Serenissima.
Faced with this triple alliance, the government of Venice stalled proceedings, but in vain: for it was Julius II who started the hostilities. The Pope then withdrew, fearing the superiority of the Venetian military.
In 1508, Emperor Maximilian of Austria entered the Trentino and the Venetian militia Bartolomeo d’Alviano rejected him; forcing him to seek a truce. This victory helped to complete Venice’s isolation.
Northern Italy Card in 1494
On 10 December 1508, the League of Cambrai unified Pope Julius II, King Louis XII of France, Emperor Maximilian, King Ferdinand II of Aragon, The England, the Savoy Mantua and Ferrara, while Florence remained neutral, occupied as it was to bend the resistance of Pisa. Beaten by foreign and Italian enemies, abandoned by nobles and wealthy citizens of the mainland cities, the republic fell on hard days.
In Agnadel on 14 May 1509, the Venetians were severely beaten by the French, because of the decision of the Senate to split the army between Bartolomeo d’Alviano and Niccolò di Pitigliano. The first impetuous, the second caution, the French attacked the rear guard commanded by Bartolomeo d’Alviano, who would not support the Count of Pitigliano.
Local people and peasants rebelled against the foreign government and Treviso, after the people knew the intention of the local nobility to cede the city to the French leader named Marco Caligaro. Excited, the people cried for “Viva San Marco” and asked for reinforcements from camp Mestre, who sent him 700 soldiers.
The Republic against the change attacked and recaptured Padua with the help of the people who did not accept the imperial government which was assisted by several hundred infantry and fifty riders. Maximilian sent an army of 30,000 to the conquest of Padua, but the city was ready to seat; inside, many Venetian nobles were present, including the two sons of the Doge, supported by several thousand infantry and cavalry with large amounts of food, ammunition and artillery.
Strengh brings joy to Venice
The imperial army was defeated, causing great joy to Venice. The French domination of northern Italy, a consequence of the battle, was seen as a threat by Julius II, who made peace with the Venetians.
In 1511 Venice came with England, Spain and the Empire in the Holy League wanted by the Pope against France. The league forced the withdrawal of the French army. Maximilian claimed the possession of Venetia if she did not pay him a tribute of 200,000 florins, followed by an annual pension of 30,000 florins.
The pope tried to convince the Venetians to accept the request of the emperor. The Republic refused and approached France, in order to drive the imperial Verona and the Veneto Lombardy from their throne, as it was still under imperial rule.
On 23 March 1513, at Blois, a treaty was signed between Louis XII and the Republic, the army of the league conquered all the territories of the Duchy of Milan , but an assault of Switzerland during the siege of Novara destroyed the French army who was forced to withdraw.
The war was conducted without force by the knights of the Emperor, who made good on their promises of obtaining castle relics by looting them for themselves. The imperial militias controlled by Cristoforo Frangipane, known for their cruelty, as well as for torturing and mutilating civilians and peasants, led the Serenissima to allow Friulians to go, in order that they not to suffer the fate, feared so much.
In Osoppo, Girolamo Savorgnan refused to surrender to Frangipane, who besieged the fortress; this allowed the Venetian army, commanded by Bartolomeo d’Alviano, to join Osoppo and destroy the German army, capturing Frangipane and then recapturing Friuli.
On the defence
The Venetians stood on the defensive, but in 1514, Pope Leo X in his election made peace with France, Spain and the Empire. The only war that was pursued and that which opposed Maximilian in Venice.
At the end of the wars of Italy, Venice had consolidated its territories, but was surrounded by the continental powers – Spain in the Duchy of Milan, the empire of the Habsburgs in the north, the Ottoman Empire – which prohibited him further expansion, and in the case of the Ottoman Empire, remained a threat to their maritime possessions.